Residue Analysis
Vessels that contain charred residues either on the inside of the vessel or trapped within design elements on the rim and outer surface, such as punctuates or incised lines, often contain visible evidence of foods cooked in them.  Residues on the outside of the vessels often are the result of cooking carbohydrate-rich foods in water, which frequently produces a frothy top layer, and results in boiling over.  The modern analog is boiling spaghetti.  Evidence of boiling maize was recovered from a Lower Loup Phase pottery sherd recovered at a Great Bend Aspect site in central Kansas.  Charred residue removed from the rim punctuates included wavy top phytoliths and starch, both diagnostic of cooking maize, and diatoms, which suggest cooking the maize in water (Cummings et al. 2008). 
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